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What is the difference between ultrasonic transmitter sensor and ultrasonic receiver sensor? Can an ultrasonic receiver sensor be used as an ultrasonic transmitter sensor or vice versa?

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    \$\begingroup\$ There are many different types of ultrasonic transmitters/receivers. It would help if you linked datasheets of some specific units. \$\endgroup\$ – uint128_t Mar 10 '16 at 15:46
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A transmitter is optimized for, or might be optimized for transmitting.

A receiver is optimized for, or might be optimized for receiving.

Some transmitters can also receive.

Some receivers can also transmit.

There are also many transceivers (transmitter and receiver), you find these in the bumpers of many cars (park assist) for example.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Many times even if there are separate transmitter and receiver they are near identical devices. The TX may have a more robust piezo element to handle higher power and the receiver might have a lighterweight one to offer lower mass and damping offering more receiver gain. Often having separate parts is done to simplify (separate) the electronic coupling even if identical transducers are used. \$\endgroup\$ – KalleMP Mar 10 '16 at 18:04
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Basic difference is that an ultrasonic transmitter is a speaker while an ultrasonic receiver is a microphone. Both are tuned to ultrasonic range.

So in transmitter case its your controller (or something else) that makes the membrane of the transmitter vibrate, while in receiver case the membrane of the sensor is vibrated by direct or reflected ultrasonic waves coming from ultrasonic transmitter.

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