I would like to get a microcontroller out of sleep when the board starts moving (or vibrating). If possible it should just be a passive switch (I only need a positive edge from a battery to get the board started, and I don't care about other behaviour). I was first thinking of a TILT switch, but I think it is a bit too restricted (i.e. 15DEG in a predefined direction...). Think of a bicycle light that should start shining when a bicycle starts moving. However, this is for a big machine. Preferably surface mount. Is there a proper name for those sensors (I keep on hitting on PIR sensors)?
As I mentioned in my comment, PIR sensors work well for detecting movement in infrared (mainly used for human occupancy detection) and require signal conditioning.
I think a tilt/vibration sensor would work well for your application and this one happens to be small, surface mount, and acts like a simple open/close switch. Even one of the applications listed is for "motion trigger wake-up". They come in a few different part numbers which you can look over (there's a "mini" version which is even smaller!). They are kind of expensive when it comes to a board component, and a little hard to find, but you will probably get a price break if you are making a bunch of these boards. If not then it's a one time cost for something that seems to do exactly what you want. I didn't try very hard to find any other stores/distributors that carry it. Maybe you can find some more.
Manufacturer link: https://signalquest.com/product/components/sq-sen-200/
http://www.glynstore.com/signalquest-sq-min-200-omnidirectional-tilt-vibration-sensor/ http://www.glynstore.com/signalquest-sq-sen-390-tilt-sensor/ http://www.glynstore.com/signalquest-sq-sen-815-tilt-sensor/