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I am studying electronics engineering and I came across these terms..how are these terms different from each other?

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    \$\begingroup\$ In general they are the same, but to be precise you can for example refer to the -3dB frequency since some of the terms can have different meanings in certain circumstances. \$\endgroup\$ – John D May 17 '16 at 4:00
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These are all loose terms used to describe filters or coupling networks, often it is the -3dB point that is being referred to, but not always.

With a single pole RC filter, the -3dB point is convenient as its frequency drops straight out of the sums for the RC time constant.

With a Butterworth filter, regardless of the order, the cnventional edge of the passband is at -3dB, and called a cutoff or corner frequency.

Be aware that filters have 'interesting' frequencies in other places, the edge of a Chebychev the passband is often specified at 1dB or 0.1dB, the edge of the stopband at possibly -60dB, which are sometimes casually referred to as cutoff, corner or break frequencies. When in doubt, check the context.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Worth noting that you should never rely on these terms to make comparison between specifications - always use accurately defined parameters which are relevant to the application - commercial filters rarely match the classical response curves precisely. \$\endgroup\$ – Sean Houlihane May 17 '16 at 7:29

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