I am studying electronics engineering and I came across these terms..how are these terms different from each other?
These are all loose terms used to describe filters or coupling networks, often it is the -3dB point that is being referred to, but not always.
With a single pole RC filter, the -3dB point is convenient as its frequency drops straight out of the sums for the RC time constant.
With a Butterworth filter, regardless of the order, the cnventional edge of the passband is at -3dB, and called a cutoff or corner frequency.
Be aware that filters have 'interesting' frequencies in other places, the edge of a Chebychev the passband is often specified at 1dB or 0.1dB, the edge of the stopband at possibly -60dB, which are sometimes casually referred to as cutoff, corner or break frequencies. When in doubt, check the context.