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I try to explain how a n-channel mosfet works. But as I try to explain there is an ambiguity that I can not understand. As I read many books and searched in the internet does not say anywhere clearly about from whom it is constructed. When we apply the positive gate voltage the holes present under the oxide layer with a repulsive force and holes are pushed downward. Thus, only negative ions in that area left and the layer acquires negative charging. Other books say that this area is derived from the electrons which are attracted. My question is ultimately, of what the channel is created? by the negative ions that remain in the layer or by the electrons which are attracted; And if it is derived from electrons ,from which atoms they come from ?(for example from silicon;)

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    \$\begingroup\$ There are numerous resources: suggested reading: fairchildsemi.com/application-notes/AN/AN-558.pdf \$\endgroup\$ Jun 12 '16 at 16:44
  • \$\begingroup\$ yes but what about the negative charged ions in the layer in p-type....it doesn't say if they contribute in creating the channel are they? \$\endgroup\$ Jun 12 '16 at 16:54
  • \$\begingroup\$ The way it is explain how they work hasn't really changed in 35 years. But us old tv radio shop people explain it differently, because their explanation is still convoluted sounding. The TV shop explanation: MOSFETs, since they are a trans conductive device, they are in a state of conduction without a bias. The gate controls this conduction state. There are two types of mosfets modes, in enhancement mode, the gate allows the MOSFET to conduct the depletion mode, the gate prohibits conduction. When the gate goes past its triggering threshold, it will switch conduction state. \$\endgroup\$ Apr 24 at 6:46
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For an NMOS transistor the channel itself consists of electrons. They are negative mobile charges flowing from the source to the drain.

Before the channel is created the region under the gate is depleted. By applying a small (!) positive voltage between gate and bulk electrons are attracted. These electrons fill the existing holes of the p-type material and the acceptor atoms loose their holes. They are said to be uncovered and act now as fixed negative charges. Since they are fixed, they won't conduct a current.

So first we have fixed negative charges underneath the gate but so far no channel. By further increasing the voltage at the gate more and more atoms become uncovered and the potential at the surface increases. Finally an energy level is reached where a larger number of electrons can exist and a channel is formed.

As soon as we have a channel the situation is as follows. There is a region with fixed negative charges with a layer of mobile charges on top of it. This layer, the channel, connects drain and source and it is possible to have a flow of electrons from source to drain.

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