I'm new to Raspberry Pi and electronics in general and I've been having trouble with GPIO. I've connected the GPIO pins to the breadboard with a ribbon, but then when I use jumper wires to connect either the 3.3v pin or GND pin to the + or - vertical rails respectively, my Pi crashes and won't turn back on until I unplug the wires. Why does this happen and how do I fix it? I've included a picture of my setup.
... ... You're shorting it out. Looks like you have 3.3V tied to Ground with the green wire, and 5V tied to ground with the red wire. Don't do that. That's causing the power supply to overload with dead shorts. I'm surprised you haven't blown a fuse or damaged anything.
Note the top left of the breakout shows 3.3V + and -. It already connects 3.3V and Ground to the long rails. In this case, the blue is +3.3V and the red is 0V/Gnd. You do not need to connect a jumper from there to the other 3.3V point in the middle. It is already connected on the breakout or on the RPi Same for Gnd and 5V on the other side. If you want the opposite, for the positive to be red, disconnect the breakout and flip the bread board around.