I think you will enjoy watching "The Ben Heck Show".
laptop screen with its laptop
As Russell McMahon pointed out, the ltn152w5 seems to be a laptop screen which is probably some proprietary, difficult-to-work-with interface. I wouldn't bother using it unless you have the exact laptop it is designed to connect to, and just want to rearrange the configuration, in which case, see Episode 5: Coach Section Laptop.
"How to Make a Digital Picture Frame - DPF from a Laptop or Notebook"
a b c
stand-alone LCD monitor with laptop or desktop motherboard
It will be much easier to interface with the LCD of a stand-alone external LCD monitor, many of which support VGA, DVI, HDMI, or some combination.
In particular, Episode 4: Portal Shirt, Episode 8: Ruggedized PlayStation 3, and possibly others, describe hacking an external LCD display. Also d.
You'll need something that can generate the VGA, DVI, HDMI, or whatever signal the LCD display can accept.
Some people generate VGA graphics with a tiny Parallax Propeller board -- that may be the path that you will learn the most if you want to get into low-power embedded systems.
You may find it much quicker to connect the panel to the VGA (or DVI or HDMI) port of a laptop motherboard or standard desktop motherboard.
Arduino with embedded graphics LCD
It's very difficult for smaller microcontrollers like the Arduino to generate VGA (or DVI or HDMI) signals,
but if you search Google ( arduino graphics LCD )
there are several small monochrome or color graphics LCDs (and OLEDs) available --
they are typically much lower resolution than you may be used to on laptop computers, but the net package LCD+microcontroller is much smaller and runs off batteries for much longer than the above approaches.
(Consider storing the images on an external SD Flash card rather than trying to squeeze them into the Arduino's internal Flash).