I am wondering how people manage signals in the high frequency range (77+GHz). How do people connect a differential Tx radar signal and sample it on a Spectrum Analyzer? Articles and books would be very helpful. I understand pcb patch antennas are more common in this frequency range but i need to find more information on it.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Hey Daniel, your question is a bit too broad. Yes, this is a hard topic, and yes, you can study this stuff for years and still not understand all of State Of the Art. We really can't tell what your current understanding of microwave and millimeter wave technology is; "understanding patch antennas" sounds like you should first finish your microwave technology education, e.g. with the famous Pozar "Microwave Engineering" book. After that, it's a lot of material science, applied cursing, random effects and expensive measurement equipment's documentation interpretation. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Aug 22, 2016 at 21:35
  • \$\begingroup\$ For the specific question of analyzing it: the received signal goes through a mixer and is then further mixed and sampled by less exotic equipment. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Aug 23, 2016 at 3:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ Spectrum analyzers do not perform Analog to Digital Conversion on incoming signals. The have an internal frequency source which can be used to generate frequency sweeps. This, combined with filters and mixers and so-on can generate the spectrum waveform without performing a DFT. \$\endgroup\$
    – user57037
    Commented Aug 23, 2016 at 4:09

1 Answer 1


To answer your spectrum analyzer question:

Very high end spectrum analyzers, such as Keysight's N9041B UXA Signal Analyzer, can take frequencies up to 110 GHz. You can even do low-THz signals with the proper mixing.


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