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I want to design discrete boost converter with 5 volt input and 24 volt output with load current of 1 amp. How do I choose suitable input and output capacitor and inductor values; what formulas are used to select those values.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Could you add scheme of the circuit you have built so far? \$\endgroup\$ – Chupacabras Aug 23 '16 at 9:48
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    \$\begingroup\$ Designing a proper boost converter is more than just filling in some formulas. Read a book about switched converter design. If that's too much trouble, get an IC to do the job, read the datasheet how to choose the components. There are also ready-to-use modules on ebay that cost less than whatever you will need to spend. \$\endgroup\$ – Bimpelrekkie Aug 23 '16 at 9:50
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    \$\begingroup\$ You could also read Switching regulators for Poets by the master: linear.com/docs/4120 \$\endgroup\$ – Peter Smith Aug 23 '16 at 10:00
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    \$\begingroup\$ Do you have a 6A 5V power supply to test it? What other test equipment do you have (oscilloscope?). \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Aug 23 '16 at 10:21
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    \$\begingroup\$ Design of a switch mode regulator is not a trivial task. I suggest you start with a chip designed for boost converters and read the application notes carefully. if you look at devices such as LT1872 you can use LTspice to simulate it before you build anything. \$\endgroup\$ – Warren Hill Sep 14 '17 at 19:17
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I want to design discrete boost converter with 5 volt input and 24 volt output with load current of 1 amp.

You are overly enthusiastic.

This is pushing the envelope for a boost. In fact, for a boost to do that, it would require an injection of steroids which would put the olympic athletes from the pinnacle of Soviet era to shame.

You'd only do that if you had no choice. So, the solution to your problem is most likely to put the 5V power supply on the shelf for another project, replace it with a 24V supply, and if you still need 5V, use a buck converter for that.

The reason is that inductor current in a boost converter is proportional to Iout*(Vout/Vin) and all losses (like I2R losses) depend on that.

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It seems you don't have a lot to start with. Try TI's workbench to get a grasp on what you might have available in terms of IC's and Magnetics.

http://www.ti.com/design-tools/webench-power-design/power-designer.html

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