I want to design discrete boost converter with 5 volt input and 24 volt output with load current of 1 amp. How do I choose suitable input and output capacitor and inductor values; what formulas are used to select those values.
I want to design discrete boost converter with 5 volt input and 24 volt output with load current of 1 amp.
You are overly enthusiastic.
This is pushing the envelope for a boost. In fact, for a boost to do that, it would require an injection of steroids which would put the olympic athletes from the pinnacle of Soviet era to shame.
You'd only do that if you had no choice. So, the solution to your problem is most likely to put the 5V power supply on the shelf for another project, replace it with a 24V supply, and if you still need 5V, use a buck converter for that.
The reason is that inductor current in a boost converter is proportional to Iout*(Vout/Vin) and all losses (like I2R losses) depend on that.
It seems you don't have a lot to start with. Try TI's workbench to get a grasp on what you might have available in terms of IC's and Magnetics.