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I have a task to build a wireless network consisting of devices (based on microcontrollers), which transmit data to the main unit.

The devices must be located in an open space on the field with ~2 km between each other, to record and process the data from the sensors and transmit the processed data to the main unit. The devices transmit data when some events take place(very rare) and the size of the data is about 50-150 bytes.

The network must have a mesh topology, so every device should also be a repeater.

estimated location

So the question is, what technology and protocol are more appropriate for building this network with the specified spacing present between devices?

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    \$\begingroup\$ So you want a list of all possible technologies? Which have you researched so far, and what do you find lacking? \$\endgroup\$ – pipe Sep 7 '16 at 8:31
  • \$\begingroup\$ At this time i find ONE-NET open-source protocol (one-net.info), which is appropriate for my task, but the project seems dead. Zig-bee it also seems suitable, but a distance between devices for this protocol is about 100 meter in an open space that is too short for me. Can you suggest something else? \$\endgroup\$ – Igor1488 Sep 7 '16 at 9:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ How are these devices powered? \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Sep 7 '16 at 9:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ Main unit has a stationary power, other devices powered by accumulators \$\endgroup\$ – Igor1488 Sep 7 '16 at 10:26
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Igor1488 the Zigbee protocol using the "Xbee Pro" modules with external high gain antenna can go kilometers in open space, not just 100m. \$\endgroup\$ – KyranF Nov 19 '16 at 19:55
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I am currently working on something similar and I am using silicon lab's Flex Gecko. They offer a range of Sub-Ghz modules with integrated ARM cortex mcu which would be perfect for what you want.

They have a system called "Connect Stack" which allows you to create a network of wireless devices like the one you want in a few simple clicks within their IDE.

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Every parameter is customizable and they also offer the RAIL API if you want to do something more custom than what the connect stack offers.

check it out : connect networking stack (Their dev kits are also pretty awesome)

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Have a look at LoRa modules from Microchip. Even though they don't work in a mesh topology they should have enough range for your needs. Interfacing to an MCU is easy, they talk a simple serial protocol.

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You can also check the Low power RF solutions from TI.This type of solution can cover upto 25Kms but with low throughput.I assume sine you don't intent to transfer much data this TI based solution should be feasible for you.

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