I'd describe it as: Switch and bulb in parallel connected to a voltage source.
I think the voltage source should be mentioned (without it you cannot reproduce the circuit, although most would think implicitly that a voltage source is there).
And I don't think a description should contain any hint that this is a quite useless contraption, stuff in school is often not useful or practical but only a test to see if the concepts are understood. An explanation of how it works can contain all the comments on how dangerous and useless this might be. However the solution is wrong - like pointed out by everyone else, if the switch is closed the light will go out.
I've seen something similar while restoring my old Vespa. This answer is more of a try to explain why the teacher might ended up with a wrong circuit.
The generator of a Vespa works like a Dynamo on a bike, so it acts like some sort of current source. And the horn was controlled by a switch which was hooked up in a similar way.
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
If you press the button (break the short), the current goes through the horn and you get a nice sound.
In the old schematics, there was no nice current source and the switch was also not depicted like in this schematic but as a normal switch. While analyzing the whole thing I was baffled at first until I drew a complete schematic and measured the switch to realize it's normally closed and pressing it does not close it but open it.
So maybe your teacher came across some circuit like this and in an attempt to make it easier, the circuit was changed in a way to make it wrong and the switch being normally closed was not clear. Most people think of pressing a button or flicking a switch will make a contact.