You have a couple issues going on here.
First of all, you are not connecting to the mic input of your computer. That jack is a TRRS jack with the mic input being on the second ring. Your adapter is TRS so you're basically connecting a headphone output to your microphone.
That transformer is doing you no good either. It's designed to bring the impedance of your microphone up so you can plug into Hi-Z amplifiers like a guitar amp for example. This is not what you want here since the impedance will be too high for the input you're using.
This is sort of a crude way to record a microphone, but you can at least get some sound out of it if you connect to the second ring of a TRRS plug, and make sure to adjust your sound input level in your Mac's system preferences. Be sure to choose the correct input as well. Your phantom power situation looks fine.
I have done quick and dirty things like this in a pinch before. I actually got away with plugging a guitar directly thru an adapter into my Macbook and got some sound out of it (plus a ton of noise of course since it's Hi-Z). That was back when the Macbook Pro had a separate line input so I didn't need to deal with the TRRS thing. The key is to hit the right input and turn your input volume up enough. It's not pretty or proper but you can at least hear something.
If you wanted to do this a bit more professionally and cleanly, you should get a proper mic preamp and audio interface. Then you could do away with the clunky phantom power supply. The situation described above is only really okay for non-critical stuff like playing along to songs in your dorm room etc.
Hope this helps!