I have this transfer function


and want to find the steady state response to an input of


But I am struggling to do anything with the transfer function.

I am familiar when I can get it to the form

$$\mathcal{L}\left[Ae^{-at}\cos{{\omega}t}+Be^{-at}\sin{{\omega}t}\right] = \frac{A(s+a) + B\omega}{(s+a)^2+\omega^2}$$

But clearly the \$a\$ terms will not match in the numerator and denominator. What do I do to find this response?

I have succesfully found \$h(t)\$ and I know it to be correct, but I'd like to know the steady state response. How is that determined?

  • \$\begingroup\$ The TF looks like a typical high-Q band-pass filter at about 36 Hz - do you not have solutions for those? \$\endgroup\$
    – Andy aka
    Commented Oct 26, 2016 at 10:13
  • \$\begingroup\$ I care more about how the maths is performed than solutions. I probably do have solutions locked away in the thousands of pages in my text books. \$\endgroup\$
    – Supernovah
    Commented Oct 26, 2016 at 10:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ I hate to say this… but the engineering way of math is looking it up. Better ask this at mathematics@stackexchange. \$\endgroup\$
    – Janka
    Commented Oct 26, 2016 at 14:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ You can probably split the transfer function to a sum of two transfer functions of which the inverse Laplace transform will be in the form of sin() + cos() \$\endgroup\$
    – Mike
    Commented Oct 26, 2016 at 14:09

3 Answers 3


\$x(t) = 2 cos( 2 \pi 30 t + 0.7) u( t )\$

\$x(t) = 2 cos( 0.7 )cos( 2 \pi 30 t + 0.7) u( t ) – 2 sin( 0.7 )sin( 2 \pi 30 t) u( t )\$




\$X(s) = \frac{2 \cdot s \cdot cos(0.7) -2sin(0.7) \omega}{s^2+\omega^2} \cdot \frac{1}{s}\$

\$X(s) = 2 \frac{ cos(0.7)s -sin(0.7) \omega}{s^3+\omega^2 \cdot s}\$


I thought I'd post an answer since I figured this one out an it had a few views:


It should be immediately obvious the poles are complex, but we only need to know them to determine \$h(t)\$ later.

The input has a frequency \$\omega=2\pi30\$ in \$x(t)=2\cos(2{\pi}30t + 0.7)u(t)\$

Substituting for \$s=j\omega\$ we get


The magnitude and phase of this response at a chosen frequency affects the forced response's magnitude and phase. ie for a sinusoidal input:

$$u(t)=M_i\cos({\omega}t+{\phi}_i)\tag{1}$$ $$y(t)=M_o(\omega)\cos({\omega}t+{\phi}_o(\omega))\tag{2}\label{2}$$

Where the subscripts \$i, o\$ denote the input and output magnitudes and phases.

Substituting \$\omega=2{\pi}30\$ gives

$$\frac{3000+j600\pi}{50000-3600\pi+j1200\pi}\tag{3}$$ $$=0.09114{\angle}0.4639=M_o(\omega)\angle{\phi}_o(\omega)\tag{4}\label{4}$$

With \$\ref{4}\$ substituted into \$\ref{2}\$ The sinusoidal steady-state response is

$$x(t)=0.1823\cos(2{\pi}30t + 1.1622)u(t)$$

Which is the desired result.

The more interesting part is the time domain for the transfer funtion \$h(t)\$.

I will employ Laplace transforms





$$\mathcal{L}\left[Ae^{-at}\cos{{\omega}t}+Be^{-at}\sin{{\omega}t}\right] = \frac{A(s+a) + B\omega}{(s+a)^2+\omega^2}\tag{7}\label{7}$$

Completing the square for \$D(s)\$ in \$H(s)=\frac{N(s)}{D(s)}\$ to reach the form of \$\ref{7}\$

$$H(s)=10\frac{(s+10) + 290}{(s+10)^2+49900}\tag{8}$$

And figuring out \$B\$ with \$A=1\$ gives


Then the time domain of the transfer by substituting values into the left side of \$\ref{7}\$ becomes


Letting \$C=\sqrt{A^2+B^2}=\sqrt{1^2+B^2}\$


Then \$\cos{\phi}=\frac{1}{C}\$ and \$\sin{\phi}=\frac{B}{C}\$


Using a trigonometric identity becomes

$$h(t)=16.3871e^{-10t}\cos(223.3831t - 0.9144)\tag{13}$$


Get the Bode plot.

enter image description here

From the plot we can see that at the frequency \$2 \pi 30 \ (=188.5)\$ of the input signal, the magnitude is about -12.5 db and the phase is about 17.5 degrees.

Thus we can say that the steady-state output value is

$$ 10^{-\frac{12.5}{20}} 2 \cos \left(2\pi30 t+0.7+\frac{17.5 \pi }{180}\right)$$

$$ = 0.474275 \cos (60 \pi t+1.00543)$$

This can be confirmed from actual simulations.

enter image description here

A zoomed-in view.

enter image description here


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