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I'm experimenting with an Arduino Mega, using it to test some relay logic. The Arduino is powered from my benchtop power supply via the Vin and GND pins.

I have digital output pins connected to some 2N2222 transistors to drive the relays. Here is a rough schematic:

enter image description here

The relays are four DPDT relays configured as a full adder.

The problem occurs when I try to reset the Arduino by removing the the power. When I disconnect the +5v pin, the Arduino stays on and the relays stay energized. If I short the +5v pin to ground, that successfully resets the Arduino and the relays turn off.

How is the Arduino receiving power when +5v is disconnected? Does it have something to do with the transistors? How can I ensure that the Arduino is only turned on when I want?

EDIT It looks like this was a PEBCAK error; I had the Arduino board resting on top of my breadboard where some detritus was apparently shorting one of the power pins on the bottom! Problem is fixed now.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Are you sure you want to configure your transistors like that? In the current configuration the emitter voltage is going to be the GPIO_Voltage - 0.7. \$\endgroup\$ – Brendan Simpson Nov 10 '16 at 18:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ @BrendanSimpson the transistors are definitely providing 5v to power the relays - they turn on and off just fine. (Did I use the wrong symbol? I can never keep them straight.) \$\endgroup\$ – friedo Nov 10 '16 at 18:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ If they are actually 2N2222's then you used the correct symbol, but Vemitter will never be more than Vb - 0.7, so I would imagine you're actually only getting 4.3V to the relays. \$\endgroup\$ – Brendan Simpson Nov 11 '16 at 19:18
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    \$\begingroup\$ @BrendanSimpson you're right - I'm getting about 4.2V out of them. Just enough to trigger the (nominal 5v) relays. \$\endgroup\$ – friedo Nov 13 '16 at 2:10
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It looks like the Arduino must still be receiving power from the 5 volts via a non-disconnected GPIO line. Those GPIO pins that are still connected to 5 volts will route the 5 volts to its own local rail inside the chip with maybe a volt drop of about 0.5 volts. This is quite a common occurrence in CMOS chips and works equally well when GPIO pins are inputs and outputs.

Here's what Dave says.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Yeah it looks like something under the Arduino board was shorting pins somewhere - though not the GPIO pins. In any case, problem solved! :) \$\endgroup\$ – friedo Nov 10 '16 at 18:31

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