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I was going through an app-note AN2606 where I came across this connection diagram:

enter image description here

As per my knowledge, UART is push-pull type and Tx provides the pull-up required and hence we don't need to use any external pull ups. Am I missing something here?

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    \$\begingroup\$ When UART is idle, Both the lines are high. Start bit in UART is first High-to-Low transition on the line. Hence they are pulled up. \$\endgroup\$ – Swanand Nov 22 '16 at 9:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ @swanand - That's what even I thought. I am wondering why this app note would recommend pull ups. \$\endgroup\$ – Whiskeyjack Nov 22 '16 at 10:39
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    \$\begingroup\$ Probably to guarantee certain requirements, like that it's high before the micro ends its power cycle or rise times are fast enough... \$\endgroup\$ – zakkos Nov 22 '16 at 10:55
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    \$\begingroup\$ I've used UART a number of times on STM32s and I haven't had any pullups, although admitedlt it was not for the bootloader, so @zakkos might be right. Also see the note below the schematic - it's only necessary if the hostst does not have a pull up of it's own, so it seems even more likely that it's there to ensusre some requirement for the state of the line. \$\endgroup\$ – Jan Dorniak Nov 22 '16 at 11:16
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    \$\begingroup\$ @swanand - what I meant was - UART pins are pulled up on their own. We should not need external pull ups as shown in the image. The Tx pins are responsible to drive the line HIGH without the need of external resistors. Tony's answer explain the requirement of those resistors. :) \$\endgroup\$ – Whiskeyjack Nov 22 '16 at 11:50
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While the microcontroller is in reset, its I/O pins will be configured as high-impedance inputs. So the pin used for a UART serial Transmit Data (TXD) will be floating during this time. This can lead to noise causing rubbish to be transmitted by the RS232 line driver.

Some line driver ICs have internal pull-up resistors on their TTL/LVTTL-side input pins to prevent this and produce an RS232 idle state. Otherwise, a pull-up resistor can be added.

A pull-up resistor on the UART serial Receive Data (RXD) input pin is not necessary because the RS232 line receiver is always driving that pin.

Note that the reset period is usually a relatively long time and that any I/O pins used as output pins are prone to this problem and must be considered for a pull-up or pull-down resistor.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ About RXD, if the host side has no pull-up at its 'TXD' pin, the 'RXD' pin at slave side (STM32 side) may also need pull-up. \$\endgroup\$ – diverger Aug 22 '18 at 7:19

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