For the CMOS inverter the text states "once the transients have settled, a path always exists between VDD and the output realizing a high output (“one”), or, alternatively, between VSS and output for a low output (“zero”). This is equivalent to stating that the output node is always a low-impedance node in steady state."

What does the last statement about low impedance mean?

  • \$\begingroup\$ ... It means that the output is close to one of the rails provided a comparatively large load impedance is present. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Nov 25, 2016 at 0:53
  • \$\begingroup\$ This is in contrast to TTL or RTL or OC logic where the impedance is higher and unsymetrical. \$\endgroup\$
    – KalleMP
    Commented Nov 25, 2016 at 6:54

1 Answer 1


Mosfets can be used as switches. In a cmos buffer one of the switches is to Vdd and the other is to Vss. A switch has two states; open or high impedance; or closed or low impedance. So when output of the cmos buffer is high, the switch to Vdd is closed. We can tell that this is low impedance by adding a load and seeing the effect. At no load the output will be Vdd. If we add load up to the Ioh specification, the output will stay close to Vdd indicating a low impedance path to Vdd. Similar for low to Vss.


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