You certainly need a capacitor at the output. From dataheet.
The circuit design used in the AMS1117 series requires the use of an output capacitor as part of the device frequency compensation. The addition of 22 μF solid tantalum on the output will ensure stability for all operating conditions.
When the adjustment terminal is bypassed with a capacitor to improve the ripple rejection, the requirement for an
output capacitor increases. The value of 22 μF tantalum covers all
cases of bypassing the adjustment terminal. Without
bypassing the adjustment terminal smaller capacitors can be
used with equally good results.
To further improve stability
and transient response of these devices larger values of
output capacitor can be used.
Also there is minimum current requirement of 5 - 10 mA.
Note 5: Minimum load current is defined as the minimum output current required to maintain regulation. When 1.5V ≤ (VIN - VOUT) ≤ 12V the device is guaranteed to regulate if the output current is greater than 10 mA.
To achieve a simple load at the output use a LED and a resistor. Modify your circuit as follows:
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab