What properties of metals make them effective at shielding against EMF, and which metals are typically used?
How does Aluminium, Steel, Copper and Lead compare?
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Copper foil (sometimes adhesive backed) is used as it is readily solderable, a (flexible) PCB substate is also often used as the geometry can be tailored by a standard process.
Aluminium and aluminum coatings on plastics are common if no soldering is needed.
Silver is common in radio frequency cavity filter plating to garner the best benefits of the skin effect at microwave frequencies.
Sheet steel is popular for sub-circuit covers and component cans as it is cheap and readily formable. Shapes are made with photo etching, die stamping and laser cutting.
Flexible elements are often made from woven or knitted meshes and sometimes small scale 'expanded metal' or perforated foil is to be found where reduced weight or freeform shape is required.
Surface coatings can be painted metal powder of zinc or silver. Thin coatings on plastic substrates would be more likely vapour deposited, sputtered or electroplated metals like aluminum, nickel, silver or gold.
All of these metals (except aluminium, nickel, silver and gold) will usually be coated with a less reactive metal, tin usually, for corrosion protection.
Lead and stainless steel are at the bottom of the list due to lower conductivity but given that a slightly thicker sheet could be used they are also an option if nothing else is available. They would more likely be selected due to their corrosion resistance and strength or flexibility.
Even chewing gum foil will attenuate the magnetic fields of fast current surges.
The last fast&accurate PCB I designed (12 bits, at 6Million Conversions/second, with 4 channels) was quite a new adventure for me, so I sat down with a pulse generator (trise, tfall approv 20 nanosecond) and a scope, and several 50 Ohm resistors (so I'd not short the generator output, nor have lotta confusing reflections) and a 2 meter coax cable/BNC connectors which I promptly cut in half, with the 50 Ohm resistors soldered onto the newly cut ends.
The resistor leads were long enough to form 1" square loops, and with 2 loops I had high-performance Transmitter and Receiver loops.
Remembering back, with 1volt from the generator into the TX loop, I saw 80 milliVolts out of the RX loop. And, sliding chewing gum foil between, the 80 milliVolts dropped at least 10:1.
That insight ----- thin AL or CU is an excellent Hfield attenuator for high frequencies ----- caused me to spend lots of time PLANNING the component placements for my high-data-rate data-acquisition system, particularly in orienting the 4 FiberOptic transmitters to avoid trashing the ADC.
Result? thermal-noise limited performance. No herringbone patterns in the reconstructed video, meaning the injected deterministic energy was 50 or 60 dB down, at least.