I recently started working in a small company that produces automotive diagnose related electronics. My boss, who is in his mid 50's, said that he was using 8051 derivatives, and they were doing the job. I went on to search Google to learn if 8051 is still popular today. And in Quora, I saw these:

...it is probably the simplest MCU architecture around. Every peripheral seems like the bare-bones version. My concepts of timers, clocking, UART etc. cleared up a lot! And, I then began appreciating other architectures - because I actually understood the differentiation.

...obviously , it won't be used by any industry to develop a product because of its simplicity...

But why? So far, at least as a student, I used to do a lot of things without messing with architecture. I happily coded with C, I used LCD peripherals, connected to other IC's with different protocols (SPI, I2C etc.)

Why should I bother with architecture of my microcontroller, apart from limited fields of real-time & time-critical applications?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Either for fun, or because you need to do a project with such an architecture, obviously. \$\endgroup\$
    – PlasmaHH
    Feb 9, 2017 at 11:02
  • \$\begingroup\$ Today 8051 is a hobby level at most. On the other hand, if you start working with something moder like ARM Cortex M4, you don't really need to learn the architecture. Not to start at least \$\endgroup\$
    – user76844
    Feb 9, 2017 at 11:03
  • \$\begingroup\$ @PlasmaHH I wish I had enough time to "have fun" with every single topic about electronics, but that was in my student years :) \$\endgroup\$
    – C K
    Feb 9, 2017 at 11:04
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    \$\begingroup\$ you need to be aware of architecture when you need performance, which probably will not happen. To give you an example, if you need to perform some calculation over and over, and you have limited time, you may be required not to use data stored in flash, or optimize registers usage. But it happens today only to a very limited number of professionals. It will take you time to get there. For now i wouldn't make a mistake assuming just writing C is enough for your coming years. \$\endgroup\$
    – user76844
    Feb 9, 2017 at 11:10
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    \$\begingroup\$ I will leave it to those who may know better :) \$\endgroup\$
    – user76844
    Feb 9, 2017 at 11:14

4 Answers 4


Are 8051 and other low-bit microcontrollers still in use today?

Yes, nearly everywhere. They're small and easy, there's a lot of cores floating around that you can put into your custom silicon at low or no cost, there's mature compilers. This all makes the 8051 still one of the most popular core architecture amongst silicon manufacturers. ARM cores might be available in more different products, but then again, when you talk to someone who's building a lot of devices at a very strict pricing constraint, chances are he's going to prefer a cheaper/free 8051 core if it gets the job done. Just to oppose @Nitro2k01 claim of niche-only usage: Mouser has nearly 800 models of 8051 microcontrollers on stock¹. And the fact that these start, even at Mouser, at prices below 40ct might be an indication of what they're used for:

mainstream, low-performance, high-volume MCUs


...obviously , it won't be used by any industry to develop a product because of its simplicity...

is high-quality utter nonsense. Especially since you're delivering a counter-example yourself

My boss, who is in his mid 50's, said that he was using 8051 derivatives, and they were doing the job.

Exactly! They're used everywhere, they're well-proven and cheap, and they are sufficient; never underestimate the advantage of having a solution to a common problem in a drawer somewhere!

Of course, it's often the case that you might need a solution with let's say two typical automotive busses, a high-speed interface to an ADC, some reliable watchdog timers, three PWM units... and then you start piecing together something consisting of four 8051 and 8080 derivates.. uh. That's a bad situation, and could very likely be solved much faster and more reliable using a single, more versatile, more powerful MCU (e.g. an ARM). But that "we have company knowledge on how something works with old technology" vs "we are future-proof by having the ability to run on modern hardware" is a classical investment security tradeoff. If you encounter one of that kind of projects, I'd try to talk to the boss in that context. For easy small jobs, yeah, 8051.

Should I bother to learn about MCU architectures in general?

Yes! I think @jfkowes explains that very well. But honestly: this is a bit like asking "should I learn how the internal combustion engine works if I want to be a car mechanic"; the answer is "you might just live fine if you can just execute repair manuals well enough, but you will probably be a much better technician (leave alone engineer) if you understand what your hardware does.

As soon as you face a problem that can't be google'd, you'd be pretty much a turtle on your back if you didn't roughly understand how your processor works.

Should I bother to learn the 8051 architecture?

Probably not. In the sense that, yes, as long as cost is not your primary focus, you can most likely just use much mightier and versatile MCUs based on ARM cores or other, more modern architectures.

Then again, the 8051 core is so easy that I'd actually recommend understanding what its units are before trying to tackle a more modern, complex, MCU core. It's a nice example.

So if 8051 isn't the core I'm looking for in a low-volume application, what am I looking for?

So, personally: go for an ARM Cortex-M0, -M3, -M4F; these are abundant in all kinds of affordable microcontrollers, easy to program (yay, mature GCC support, CMSIS standard libs, lots of embedded OSes running on these), and commonly come with standard debug interfaces (which is a great plus).

ARMs are, from the outside, usually relatively easy to understand, as you'd typically map every peripheral into memory space, and that's it. Internally, they have varying degrees of sophistication, and speed/robustness/size optimizations, making them not perfectly easy to understand en detail, but I guess that might be a bit much to ask for unless you're into CPU design.

If you're into CPU design, I think (this is really a personal belief based on my observation of research activities and "promised" industry investments) we're currently observing the rise of a new important ISA – the RISC-V. There's various implementations of this architecture for FPGAs or silicon, and people like Nvidia seem to also play with the though of replacing their stream multiprocessors with these kinds of cores.

¹: It's very likely I'm missing more than half of the actual 8051s that mouser has (because, hey, I just selected all MCUs whose core name was *80*5*). Chances are that if you pick a random 8bit microcontrollers, it's likely that its core is at least partially derived from 8051. I mean, just look at wikipedia's "list of [8051] derivate vendors".

  • \$\begingroup\$ AVR is also a great learning architecture, with outstanding documentation and gcc support. \$\endgroup\$ Feb 9, 2017 at 19:25
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Chrylis hate to disagree, but I personally don't think the ATMega 8bitters are a great architecture, nor is their documentation or GCC support outstanding compared to ARM cortex m0, with which they compete. But that's a personal opinion! \$\endgroup\$ Feb 9, 2017 at 19:49
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    \$\begingroup\$ @MarcusMüller After some experiences with Atmel, I'd never use them anymore (except for hobby.) Atmel depended on hobbyist activity to support businesses smaller than a certain "size" -- which I was always smaller than, as our qtys never exceeded 6000 a year. FAEs were nice, but that didn't help with France (AT91) and so I just let them go. Microchip, on the other hand, has supported me to crazy great levels no matter the project. Supports their prof. tools "forever" and even old chips are still made. Atmel now bought by Microchip. So maybe change afoot there and I'll look again. \$\endgroup\$
    – jonk
    Feb 9, 2017 at 20:17
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    \$\begingroup\$ @jonk so, whereas PIC/microchip has a good service reputation and might survive on that alone, the Atmel portfolio extension might come to a stall. And, my hope for the next decade: As we've discussed in the comments to another answer a while back, if it proves right that wafer "shuttle services" become more and more affordable, and with very competitive 32bit/optionally 64bit/optionally RT guarantees architectures like RISC-V in various sizes and speeds (as implemented as cores by the name of BOOM, Rocket-chip, or PicoRV32), the "heck, I have a special problem, I can get a special MCU" will… \$\endgroup\$ Feb 9, 2017 at 21:32
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    \$\begingroup\$ @MarcusMüller One can hope. If things turn on customer support, Microchip simply slaughters everyone else. I had a professional tool, 12 yrs old, where the power switch became "flaky." I called to ask if they could give me the switch part number so I could order one and fix the unit. Instead, they demanded sending me a replacement unit, sent me it and a box to return them the old one, and it arrived the following AM! No cost. I asked, "Do you need proof of purchase?" They said, "Nope. Just return the other unit. Physical possession is all we need." Darned thing was ancient. \$\endgroup\$
    – jonk
    Feb 9, 2017 at 23:02

In general, here are some good reasons to learn (or at least have a working knowledge of) the architecture of the microcontroller you are using.

Caveat: in the context of your job, the company, the application, the associated hardware etc, there may be reasons why you should not learn the particular architecture you are using right now.


When high-level libraries are working, you might not need to know the architecture. When you start having problems, knowing the internals of your microcontroller can help a lot to isolate and fix those problems quickly.

Code Efficiency and Simplicity

If you know the architecture, you may be able to move functionality from software to hardware. This has the potential to reduce software load and remove sources of bugs.

Cost Reduction

Knowledge of the architecture may reduce program and data memory usage and processor load. This may mean you can select a microcontroller with fewer resources, potentially reducing cost.

Increasing your usefulness

Even if you don't use the knowledge right now, discussions with colleagues/vendors/support engineers etc. might call on it. For example, something you know might help someone else out with a problem they're having. Saving the day is something people remember.

Knowledge is Power

Even if you don't need the knowledge in your current job, when you see an advert for a job that looks amazing that says "Knowledge of the <microcontroller family> architecture is required/preferred", you'll be in a better position to go for it.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Then again, I don't know whether you'll often read that sentence in a job advert – it's kind of arcane knowledge, and anyone who's the least knowledgable about any CPU architecture will be able to pick up the 8051 in his first three days of work, I'd guess \$\endgroup\$ Feb 9, 2017 at 12:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ Good point, I've edited that to be more general. \$\endgroup\$
    – jfowkes
    Feb 9, 2017 at 12:55

Are 8051 and other low-bit microcontrollers still in use today?

Yes, although mostly for niche use cases. They are mostly used for simple tasks, in mass produced, cost-driven products, or where a proven track record is desirable. They are often licensed and integrated to a single chip solution. Because of their simple architecture, it's easy to integrate them with custom peripherals on the same chip. Another advantage is that they can be produced on a small area with older (and cheaper) semiconductor manufacturing techniques.

One such example is in the control chip in smart cards, which often use an 8051 or similar core with cryptographic hardware extensions. You would likely find 8-bit microcontroller cores in things like the controller for a smart electric toothbrush monitor. A vehicle ECU will often use an 8-bit microcontroller, along with a 32-bit one, as a watchdog because of their higher reliability and lower complexity.

Should you learn it?

Apart from the chance that you might actually end up in a situation where knowledge of that particular architecture is needed, I'd argue that it is a useful skill in general. Even if you program C in your day to day work, having a general understanding of what goes on "one level below" is useful. When troubleshooting weird bugs or performance problem, it may be a lot easier to pinpoint the problem if you have a general understanding of the underlying hardware. You could also more easily analyze the assembly language output from the C compiler. Learning one architecture will also make it easier to learn different ones in the future. These skills might also help you write better code even for more modern CPU cores.

  • \$\begingroup\$ I'd every so slightly disagree with the "Niche" claim; see my answer below :) but still, yours is a good answer! \$\endgroup\$ Feb 9, 2017 at 12:42

You can learn a lot about digital design through learning them. Digital electronics are built using two things. First are logic, interconnections of AND,OR,NOT elements implementing a logical expression. (In practice other logical elements such as NAND are actually used, but AND,OR and NOT are easier to understand.) Second are memory elements that can hold one or more bits. When memory elements are introduced, devices can have what is called a state. Different combinations of bits in it's memory elements correspond to different states.

Consider a vending state machine that starts in state 0 and moves to another state each time a coin is inserted. In so doing the machine can keep track of the total amount of money, know when enough money has been put in and know how much change to return.

To design the machine's circuits, starting with a diagram of the states with arrows showing transitions to other states along with the conditions that trigger them. For each arrow, a logical expression identifies a condition. One can then work out what all of these expressions are and implement them with logic elements.

For a vending machine, this isn't very difficult. For complex controllers it gets a lot harder. Microcontrollers are a quick and easy way to do the same thing. Consider a "memory" that (in the sense of a byte or word) is k bits wide and has n address lines resulting in 2^n locations in memory. This memory is programmed with a design and is read-only in practice. Note that using the memory's address bits as "inputs" and the data bits as outputs, the memory can be programmed to realize any logical function.

Adding a register also k bits wide to hold the content of a memory location yields a state machine.

If the k bits are divided into, e.g., an opcode and an address. The opcode set of bits controls other pieces of the circuit (such as dispensing a vending machine product) and the others are an n bits wide memory address, each set of k bits becomes a microinstruction with branching capability.

Add to this some arithmetic logic, some more registers (where one or more of those takes control inputs to shift left and right) and you can build a CPU whose machine instructions are implemented by a sequence of microinstructions.

In the 1970's and 1980's a number of successful computers were built using this design. One of them (Digital Equipment's VAX 11) had a machine instruction to calculate an integer polynomial, intended for address calculations (think array). It turned out that the instruction could be implemented faster using simpler instructions.

Microcontrollers can be and usually are, a less efficient implementation than a traditional state machine. But they can be easily changed, much faster to design and are great controller solutions.


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