Could anybody suggest solution for a situation where, In a 3-phase, 4-wire system, phase and neutral are getting interchanged. How can I prevent this situation and what is it exactly called!?
You can use color codes if your installation uses it. However, I'd rather use a multimeter to be sure because -from my short experience- you're not sure if the technician did actually use color codes. I've seen a phase conductor connected to a socket through an earth color coded conductor (Yellow/Green) because the technician ran out maybe of other colors :)
The old EU system was Black or brown for 3 phase lines. To prevent wiring errors, the new standard is Brown, Black, Grey for L1,L2,L3 and in America, Red, Yellow, Blue colours are used. (RYB)
In applications where reverse rotating machines are hazardous to people or equipment, one will include a three-phase monitor relay. This protection consists of different RC passive filters that use phase shifting currents to activate a relay which in turn powers the 3 phase contactors when in the proper sequence or activates a light indicator if faulty.