Here d = disturbance & n = noise
According to your image, disturbance acts on a controller output, while noise acts on a process output.
Take a moving vehicle for example - obstacle on the road would be a noise, and some (unexpected) event in the engine, gas tank etc. (in a car itself) would be a disturbance.
Noise \$n\$ affects your meassurements of \$y\$, so that instead measuring \$y\$ you will measure \$y+n\$. Disturbance affects the generation and not the meassurement of the variable \$y\$.
MrYouMath's answer is the most accurate. In a Control System, Disturbance is what you make the control system for in the first place, it can be anything that alters the functionality of whatever you are working with. If it's a car, you could say that a disturbance is an obstacle in the road, or if it's a washing machine, it could be a weight overload. Noise here refers to electrical noise, it's an alteration in the output which in that particular control system that your image shows, is mitigated with a feedback loop