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Lets say for example that a person has a wireless charger in their car centre console (an option on some new cars)

This person puts their wallet and phone there and the charger kicks in. (wallet between charger and phone)

Given that RFID / NFC / Contactless etc cards have an induction coil to power the chip, is it possible for the chip to be destroyed by the effect of the charging field?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Diodes will protect any expected excess energy. If you exceed safe power levels at higher frequencies, then human absorption levels for power level must be also be limited with standing wave resonance \$\endgroup\$ – Sunnyskyguy EE75 May 17 '17 at 12:52
  • \$\begingroup\$ reminds me of when I was testing disk drives for susceptibility in a Faraday cage with opto isolated field strength meter doing 10V/m with a 1kW RF amp up to 200MHz or more(?) The output was pulsing and Amp was humming at several frequencies which turned out to be standing wave notches for the faraday cage and E field sensor device thus no feedback so the RF amp was pulsing 1kW in to the room with a horn antenna for VHF and dodecahedral antenna below this. The humming got me to correct the flawed setup at this FCC test facility. The 5.25" HDD data survived!! which tells you when I did this. \$\endgroup\$ – Sunnyskyguy EE75 May 17 '17 at 13:56
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If circumstantial evidence is good enough for an answer, then yes.

I have gone through 4 access cards at my WeWork location before deciding it was my Qi charger killing the cards. The staff told me that the cards would not be damaged by Qi chargers, and that I must just be getting defective cards the first two times.

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Normally, these fields should be well-shielded enough. But, since these are, by design, non-radiating fields, things like FCC requirements don't apply, and you'll simply have to read the manual of the individual charger.

So, "it depends".

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