There's a lot of parameters there.
In principle a USB connection uses differential signals, which means all signal current should flow only in the data wires.
But usually affordable USB devices are designed in the mind-set of a solid ground connection, which means there could well be small transient spikes that relate back to the data signals.
While it is likely those spikes are so small that a moderately well designed system has the appropriate capacitance to catch them.
More to the point, you are introducing a purely reactive element to one of two connections (D+/- and Power) in a dynamic system, so you will need to be extremely careful about oscillations due to plug/unplug, power transients and coupled noise as well.
Because once your device starts oscillating (which you may not even notice at first) compared to the supply, it may go up and down so far, that your data-lines effectively get pulled into corners that your host can't handle. Because your D- and D+ will always be driven between the V+ and GND of your design, so if your GND wobbles up and down by 10V, you are likely to break your computer. Even if your V+ stays neatly the same distance from GND all through that wobble.