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I'm a student in an engineering school and I have a question for professionnals : What is exactly the usefulness of a geared motor that uses a gear to reduce the rotation speed compared to a regular motor which can, I assume, already modify its own speed without a gear ?

PS: What are the disadvantages, or problems that could occur while using a gearmotor, compared to other alternative systems that you may know of ?

And what are the different types of gear motors ?

Thank you so much for your answers !

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In short: A gear is a transmission component, that matches the motor and load speed. A motor delivers nominal power at certain speed (nominal speed) where outputs a nominal torque. Just regulating the speed by lowering it, also lowers the power, so it might be useless to drive a load with 1/10-th of rated motor speed, because you would need 10 times bigger motor than needed.

For drive dynamics, the transmission is also used to match rotor mass of inertia with load mass of inertia. This is important for high dynamics.

There are plenty of transmissions possible: planetary gear, rack/pinion, spur gear, harmonic gear, belt,...it all matters for the price, transmission loss, type of translation needed.

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