As @dandavis suggested in the comments, if you really want to power it from USB, you can get a 5V->12V step-up converter to get 12V from your USB supply. Keep in mind that current goes down as voltage goes up (so if your supply is rated 5V @ 1.2A, you'll get less than 0.5A at 12V from a converter).
For that small strip of LEDs you show, this should be sufficient, but do not try to run a six-foot length of that stuff off your computer's USB port -- your computer is gonna have a bad day (in all probability the strip just won't light, but you could pop an internal fuse on your USB port, which may or may not be self-resetting; if it's not, hopefully it's a discrete component that can easily be replaced by someone with the proper electronics/soldering skills).
Keep in mind that this particular LED strip has a microcontroller (the little black chip) and a DIN line, as Tony mentioned in his answer, so how it behaves without data on the DIN line is anyone's guess. The strip may not light at all, or (and I'm assuming this is your goal) it may just come on full brightness with no control, which isn't a terrible thing in and of itself.