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I have a CPU board (NanoPI M1) which specifies it has a DVP 24-pin camera port. However many of the usual camera modules (like OV5647) says they have both DVP and MIPI support. How would it generally work to connect one of them to a DVP port?

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I've been looking into camera interfaces recently too, so excuse me if I misspeak, but I think they're essentially different ways of communicating over the same port, in the sense that TCP and UDP are different ways of communicating over a network.

I found a guide discussing the two while referring to an arduino camera shield:

CMOS image sensor interface divided into two catalogs, one is DVP (Digital Video Port) interface, the other is MIPI Mobile Industry Processor Interface. The main difference between DVP and MIPI is that DVP is parallel interface and the MIPI interface is high speed differential serial interface. MIPI interface provide higher data band width than DVP interface and support higher resolution and frame rate. Because the complexity and need additional hardware of MIPI interface, we only discuss DVP interface here.

It looks like with your board it only supports DVP since it doesn't mention MIPI, however as long as the camera is compatible with DVP as I'd assume most are I'm sure you'd be fine. I think basically all camera modules support both or support MIPI, however MIPI requires more hardware on the user end which might be why it's not supported on the Nano. As long as the ports are physically compatible however (meaning you can plug them in or can find an adaptor of sorts) you should be fine.

I also apologize for not being able to speak specifically to the model camera you're referring to as I'm not sure what that is, though I assume it supports DVP and has the same type of connector as the Nano

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