I was reading about opamp integrator concept in a text as such:
I marked the terminals of caps as a and b. Above formula assumes the b terminal as being the positive end I guess.
But regarding the direction of I2, can't we say that the positive terminal of the capacitor is a?
But then if it the positive terminal is a, then it is connected to the ground. What is the + and - ends of the capacitors in the above figure?
I know it is basic circuit theory but somehow I'm confused at this point.
Isn't there only one option of the polarity of a cap at a moment for a given current direction across it?
Besides these, I also do not get why in sim for the inverting input (point X) the voltage is not zero for 10 secs of time duration. According to op amp theory Vx must be around zero but it is around 1V here: