I would like to know if it is possible to test the channel by just
placing a jumper across the terminal(applying a 0 ohm resistance).
Will this work? Is there a type of thermistor which has a known
temperature at 0 ohms?
Not really, a zero ohm resistor will either read the max temperature or min temperature. There is a better way.
Generally thermistors are speced with a temperature and a resistance, like 25kΩ at 25C or 30kΩ at 25C or 10k at 25C (the thermistors are usually built to be a certian resistance at 25C (but can be other temperatures)). So all you would have to do is plug in 25k or 10k and watch the recorded temperature of the DAQ, it should be the same on all DAQ's you test, assuming that the DAQ's have the same thermistor constants in their software.
If you know the thermistor curve inside of the DAQ you could calculate what the temperature would be with a given resistor. Or you could experiment with trial and error. Start with 10k and then try 30k.
Thermistors have a curve, they are generally defined by 3 constants, A, B and C. This defines an exponential curve and defines the converstion of resistance to temperature. If the DAQ has the ability to change those constants then you could change them to the thermistor of your choice, and simulate the resistance. If you can't change those constants then that is ok, but you may want to do some research into how those equations work.