What you have is 380V three-phase "wye".
Think of the three phases as a triangle. "Wye" means there is a "neutral" wire in the center of the triangle. Any phase to neutral is 220V as you are accustomed. (Distance is voltage).
That is how power is wired on five continents and New York City. Three-phase power is brought to the pole in back of your house, or inside your apartment building.
Some houses get only 1 phase (that's all they need for household loads), some get two phases (doubles available power, only 1 more wire), and some get all three either because they need a lot of power, or to run fairly large loads (A/C system, heat pump emergency heat, etc.) Three-phase power is ideal for motors.
Three-phase power is best loaded evenly. So for any group of houses or apartments, they will put 1/3 of them on each phase, with the idea that they will tend to average out. If you have more than one phase in your house, they will spread your loads around as equal as they can.
What happened is one of the "hot" phases came loose or had a breaker trip. This shut off one phase, and killed 220V power on the 1/3 of your outlets that used that phase. Heaters would be 2/3 out. Motors would not run.
If you were skilled with electrical, you could have opened up your service panel/consumer unit and moved the blacked out loads onto one of the phases that was still working.
The bigger worry is losing a neutral. Remember the triangle I mentioned? If your neutral wire had failed instead, neutral is no longer held in the center. It will float around anywhere inside that triangle, depending on the load on each phase. That means any phase to neutral voltage could be as low as 0 and as high as 380. If the problem was inside your house, check your neutral wire also.