what is this type of interface, located at the very edge of the PCB? What's interface standard, and what is pinout? The 5 holes in yellow circles is GND.
That looks like half of a Mictor connector footprint for a logic analyzer. Mictor connectors are relatively high speed connectors that usually have 38 surface mount signal pins in two rows of 19 and five through hole ground pins in the center line. This footprint looks like that, but with the surface mount pads only on one side. It's possible that the pads on the other side are routed off on this board, but could be left on for development models.