Which type of jumper wires will I need in order to connect this MSP430 to a breadboard to build simple circuits? Are all jumper wires equal or is there special ones to supply power vs. those used for communication back and forth? Lastly, can someone confirm if the 20 pins on each side are male or female?
Pins are male (at the risk of being obscene, consider human external sexual characteristics).
To use this board with the plastic breadboards, you would need a female-to-male jumper. Such jumper wires (or any wire, for that matter) can be used for power or signal (although heavier wire is required for high currents, which you shouldn't be using on a breadboard). Jumper wires usually come in many different colours - you can use the colour to help identify the purpose of the jumper.
The pins have both male and female connections. The female parts are on the bottom side. They are passthrough headers used for stacking the launch pad with booster packs.
You can use female to male jumpers to connect the top side with a breadboard. Or female to female with some spare male headers on the breadboard.
Most jumpers are 22 awg and should be fine for power and data. Power is limited by your 5v usb power supply and the 3.6v regulator on board so you don't need larger gauge wire.