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To calculate battery's energy, one should use the nominal voltage or 100% SOC voltage?

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Nominal voltage. The battery voltage drops fairly quickly from 100% SOC so you would definitely get an over-estimate if you used the 100% charged voltage.

Nominal voltage is where the battery spends most of its time in the discharge curve.

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Very rough calculation for 12V 100Ah:

$$W = P\cdot t = 12\cdot 100\cdot 3600\cdot V\cdot A\cdot s= 4320000 Ws=4320000J \approx 4MJ$$ Like 0.1 litre of gasoline.

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