I understand that USB data transmission is done over various speeds where transmission line effects could come into play(max 480Mbps which means a max frequency that is much higher considering the square wave harmonics/edge rate, perhaps 5th harmonic for 2.4GHz max significant signal frequency content) as a differential pair with controlled 90 ohm differential impedance or 45 ohms to ground for each individual wire in the pair.
My question is if it's true that ANY USB cable capable of transmitting data must have D+/D- wires manufactured in a precise way as to maintain this impedance along the length of the cable. If so how is this done? Surely this must require some complex calculation involving inductances/capacitances and very specific spacing between the wires and surrounding ground shield that must maintain constant over the length of the cable, right? Do all cable manufacturers really take this into account?
Or am I wrong and the cables do not need to achieve this characteristic impedance at all? Does it depend on the length of the cable such that normal cable lengths do not need to worry about this?
Taking a random USB cable picture off google it doesn't seem like the data wires get any special treatment...