Sure, there's no problem. You see common 120V receptacles all over houses in North America. You can do exactly the same thing with 240V circuits.
The normal 120V plugs are called NEMA 5-15 plugs, and they go into either NEMA 5-15 or 5-20 sockets. The Electrical Code says the breaker must be 15A or 20A, and the socket ampacity must match the breaker, except 5-15 sockets are OK on a 20A circuit if there's more than one socket.
The same exact rules apply to 240V circuits (no neutral) except you use NEMA 6-15 and 6-20. The sockets are almost identical but are keyed not to fit NEMA 5.
You could take a 120V circuit and just convert it to 240V by changing all the sockets to NEMA 6 and landing its 2 conductors on a 240V breaker. However, Code requires certain mandatory sockets in homes, and those mandatory ones must be 120V. Other than that, fit all the NEMA 6-15 or 6-20 sockets you desire. It's no more difficult than installing a 120V circuit. You cable it with the normal /2 cable (twin and earth) and you tape the white wire to indicate it is a hot.
Now, one person talked about making a 240V circuit that serves both 120V and 240V loads. That's allowed but is a little awkward. It needs the more special /3 cable with two hots and a neutral. From the 120v circuit's perspective, it is a multi-wire branch circuit with some funny rules. GFCI/AFCI, if needed, wont be any harder than on a straight 240V circuit, but will probably end up needing to be in the breaker panel.