I have a damaged ATX 230WCE power supply unit and wondered if I could find 12V, 5V, and 3.3V Voltage regulators inside. I tried looking in another unknown model psu and only found transistors and diodes which looked like voltage regulators. If I can find voltage regulators, what might the part numbers be? Keep in mind, this is a very old PSU. If I won't be able to find regulator inside them, then how does it have 12v, 5v, -5v, -12v, and 3.3v outputs?
As AndrejaKo mentioned, you may be able to find a LM7805 (or similar) linear regulator in the 5V standby section of the PSU. Look for it near the end of the purple wire.
Computer supplies don't usually have integrated voltage regulators inside. But they have all the necessary elements of a voltage regulator inside. In a sense, the whole supply is a regulator.
There will be a voltage reference inside. The output voltage (possibly scaled by a resistor divider) is compared to the voltage reference, and the supply is turned "up" or "down" to make it match the voltage reference. The reference might be a TL431 or a 5.1V zener diode.
Computer supplies often regulate a main voltage (the 5V or 3.3V output) and arrange the other outputs to be ratios of the main one, by turns ratio on the transformer for example. This is not really precise but works well enough for powering computers.