How any one can achieve sinusoidal back emf and trapezoidal back emf in the motor. What is the winding differences in those motors. I have take an In-wheel BLDC exterior motor which is used in e-bike. I get sinusoidal shape instead of "Trapezoidal shape". In this case how can I calculate back emf constant.
The magnets and pole faces can be shaped and positioned to achieve a more 'trapezoid' back-emf. Different winding patterns may also have an effect.
However I suspect that matching back-emf to the drive waveform is often not done, because real BLDC back-emf waveforms are all over the place. Here are some scope traces showing the phase-to-phase waveforms of 3 motors that I tested (vertical pulses are PWM drive, back-emf is the middle waveform that occurs when the phases are not driven):-
These are all small 'in-runner' BLDC motors rated for 100-300 Watts, designed to power RC model aircraft. The first two motors have slotted iron stators. One produces close to trapezoid back-emf, the other nowhere near it.
The last trace is from a coreless ironless motor, which explains its almost perfect sine wave back-emf. Despite having a 'suboptimal' back-emf waveform, this motor (which only weighs 28 grams) produces 90W at 60,000rpm with 83% efficiency.
The general design configuration of the motor must first be considered. That includes whether the air gap is radial or axial, whether the motor has an interior or exterior rotor and whether the claw-pole or conventional structure is used.
For a conventional motor with an interior rotor, the following design features would be considered: The influence of the stator winding on the shape of the back emf waveform is determined by the way that the stator windings are distributed among the rotor slots, the number of rotor slots per pole, the slot diameter and the skew angle of the slots. The rotor design also influences the shape of the back emf waveform. The relevant factors include the use of interior permanent magnets vs. surface permanent magnets, the skew angle of the magnets and the geometry of the magnets.
Re question revision
The design configuration in question seems to have an outer rotor that is a ring of homogeneous material that is magnetized in an alternating N-S pattern. That would result in magnets do not have distinct edges. That would tend to soften the edge of the resulting bemf waveform making it more sinusoidal.
The inner stator could have windings distributed to some extent, but not enough space for a lot of options in slot number or winding pattern.
The flux distribution is probably far from sinusoidal, but there are enough factors in the design suppressing the higher order harmonics to make the current look somewhat more sinusoidal than trapezoidal.
Most motors are closer to sinusoids than trapezoidal waveforms. (if you find one that is heavily trapezoidal, please let me know!) The difference is the spatial distribution of windings. The manufacturer can engineer the stator windings in a BLDC to be sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal.
In this case how can I calculate back emf constant.
Very easy. With motor disconnected from drive electronics:
- Spin a motor at constant speed (typically 1000RPM but it can be anything as long as it's below the rated motor speed but not too far below it)
- Measure RMS voltage between any two terminals with a DMM
- Measure the speed with a tachometer, or by taking the electrical frequency of backemf on an oscilloscope and dividing by the # of pole pairs (see motor datasheet, or put DC current into one pair of terminals and count the number of equilibrium points per mechanical rotation)
- Calculate voltage divided by speed, e.g. 10Vrms / 2000 RPM = 5Vrms/KRPM line-line.
First, what is shaped to be sine or trapeze is not BEMF, it's the magnetic field of the rotor.
In BLDC It can be trapeze for commutation by hall effect sensors- then the algorithm of current control is simple and you can literally choose a phase to control its current. So you have six different hall sensors states, for each you control your current for a certain phase configuration. And because the field is flat, you get flat torque.
The magnetic field in BLDC can also be a sine. In that case you need encoder for commutation, the algorithm becomes more complicated, but you get really smooth torque over the whole magnetic cycle.
In stepper you get sine just because you have really many magnets, and flattening the field is a challenge. On the other hand zwho cares about smooth torque in stepper? Anyway in most applications they don't even work in closed loop.
Ok, that was "why". As for "how" , the answer is by magnets size and position, and coils size and position. They simulate and measure motors, and never in fact get a perfect trapeze on perfect sine.