# 4-terminal shunt resistor [duplicate]

What is the importance of a 4-terminal shunt resistor? What is real purpose behind using two seperate terminal for the voltage measurement across the shunt resistor?

• Kelvin connection (no time to answer now but the term might be helpful). – Wesley Lee Jan 9 '18 at 10:33
• Good related article which helps understand the issue and also shows ways to use this technique with cheap 2-terminal shunts: analog.com/en/analog-dialogue/articles/… – Manu3l0us Jan 9 '18 at 12:44
• – Dmitry Grigoryev Jan 9 '18 at 14:29

Take a look at this. It shows two terminals as the main current flow (thick tracks) and uses 2 more terminals for measurement of the volt drop generated by that current: -

The "better" way is on the left because it takes measurement connections from a defined place and at no point on those measurement connections is there load current flowing.

The picture on the right shows the measurement connections at some small distance from the shunt resistor terminals and therefore there is a small volt drop that forms an error - in effect you can't rely on the stated value of the shunt resistor in order to convert the measured voltage to an assumed current flow.

• +1. For future readers, the image is present in page 24 of this datasheet: ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/ina240.pdf – Wesley Lee Jan 9 '18 at 10:42
• Problem is, your resistor only has two terminals - not four. – pipe Jan 9 '18 at 10:43
• I mean, OP explicitly asks why certain resistors have four terminals, while you show how to get an accurate reading with only two terminals. So why would a resistor have four terminals when it's not necessary? – pipe Jan 9 '18 at 12:07
• @Andyaka, your answer above clearly details on the connection of the measurement traces. Expected answer was to exaplain the need of additional two terminals on the Shunt resistor which is answered in the below answers. – Durgaprasad Jan 9 '18 at 12:52
• In a 2 terminal resistor, the pad geometry is important, which is outside the manufacturer's control. In a 4 terminal resistor, the way the manufacturer measures/warrants its performance is the same as the user will get, regardless of pad geometry. I'm not going to make a separate answer just to say this, would you to add it to your already good one? – Neil_UK Jan 10 '18 at 6:49

I will just go out on a limb and say that it's probably because of this:

• 2 terminals for the current to flow through.
• 2 terminals for measuring.

By having 4 connections, the supplier of the shunt resistor can make sure that what you are measuring across will be the shunt resistor where the current will flow which you are trying to measure.

If there was only two terminals, then you would have to decide for yourself where you want to branch off for measuring. There are many viable positions to measure across, but which one will most correctly measure the voltage across the shunt resistor? When you are making high quality stuff, this is no simple question.

Shunt resistors are used where there are high currents. As such the point at which you tap of the voltage to be measured is important. Moving it by even 1mm may make a big difference especially if there are large currents.
The four tap shunt is built to have the voltage points there where they represent the correct conversion from amps to voltage. See it is part of the calibration.

On your question of putting them in parallel.
That would be possible if the two resistors where really equal in value. In that case you can measure one of them and multiply the result by two.
But we all know components are never exactly accurate. Thus a small difference in resistance will make the current split unequal. I would say you have to measure both voltages and add them up.

• Clear. How do we connect them if we are using two such shunts in parallel connection? – Durgaprasad Jan 9 '18 at 12:53
• @Durgaprasad: if you connect 2+ such 4-terminal shunts in parallel, then just ignore that extra terminals and branch off first on the track before first resistor, and on track after the last resistor in paralell. The reason is, when you CONNECT them in parallel, you need some TRACK or JOINT that does the connection, and these kind of things is precisely what you usually try to avoid by using special terminals. If you parallelize them, do your thing and just ignore them.. OTOH, if you want that to be precise, buy a single 4-term resistor that has N times larger resistance. – quetzalcoatl Jan 9 '18 at 13:07
• @quetzalcoatl you mean smaller - putting resistors in parallel will make total resistance smaller. – Arsenal Jan 9 '18 at 13:53
• My, of course! I was writing having in mind "series" the time, I have no idea why. – quetzalcoatl Jan 9 '18 at 14:05
• @quetzalcoatl: Connecting C1, C2, and C3 each to a common point via moderate-value (e.g. 1K) resistors, and doing likewise with D1, D2, and D3, should avoid the need for separate ADCs if the measurement device's input impedance is high enough that the added series resistance doesn't matter. Current flowing in the added resistors may lead to measurement errors, but should typically be small enough to be a non-issue. – supercat Jan 9 '18 at 21:55

Shunt resistors for measuring large currents have very low resistance so they don't consume excessive power and produce excessive heat. Shunt resistors are usually far less than 1 ohm, usually being 0.1 or 0.01 ohms or even 0.001 ohms. The problem with using resistors of such a low value is that the resistance of the solder joints and circuit board traces can be a similar order of magnitude and hence will create a voltage drop similar in magnitude to the voltage drop across the sense resistor itself. This makes accurately measuring the voltage drop through the precision sense resistor a bit tricky. The most robust solution to this is to separate the high current path from the voltage sense path with a 4 terminal shunt. The high current path may have a few extra milivolts of drop due to the extra miliohms of resistance from the traces and solder joints, but the voltage sense connections will not see this due to the different current path and can therefore much more accurately read the shunt voltage.