In addition to what Mr. McMahon has to say (excellent explanation there):
I assume the WiFi "booster" is a USB WiFi dongle with a beefed-up front end. So it especially increases the TX power. Note that this may violate relevant national regulations (typically limited to 100 mW with an "omni" low-gain antenna) which may or may not be a practical problem to a particular human user ;-)
There's not much you can do about the RX side LNA. The LNA's in the MiniPCI-e WiFi cards are not so bad that they would use external improvement. The WiFi card consists of a NIC chip and a smaller "radio front end" chip. The front end chip does the RX/TX direction switching and contains the PA and LNA stages - and therefore determines both the output power and the input noise floor.
Hint: Google SkyWorks SE2593A20.
The maximum output TX power is not exactly even across the frequency spectrum, it tends to roll off towards the upper end of the spectrum and towards higher data rates... but generally the WiFi card maker can affect the TX power by choice of the front end chip. Hardly anyone does seperate RX and TX connectors on a WiFi card, most cards have combined RX+TX coax ports (two or three of them, one port per RXTX "chain"). Also note that in WiFi, the RX and TX run in the same channel - thus, RX vs. TX cannot be separated by a highpass/lowpass frequency splitter + combiner (to be treated separately). As the card makers do not venture their own designs of the PA and LNA made of discrete components, they have to use what's available from the RF front end chip makers, optionally adding heatsinks to be able to overdrive the WiFi front end chips a little outside of spec.
Even if "more power" was easily available, adding more power is not such a brilliant solution in environments with lots of crosstalk between neighboring AP's (residential blocks etc). Increasing the collision-avoidance sensitivity threshold might bring some improvement in such "dense" areas, but that's typically not a tweakable parameter and if it was, it would have its clear limits. More power is really only any help for long-distance links, if all you need is the sheer reach (and even that has its limits).
Generally the best amplifier is a quality antenna :-) Improves range in both directions. And, as others have said, high antenna gain means high directionality, and large dimensions (directional antennas have large reflectors, in proportion to wavelength).
With respect to antenna quality, an external USB WiFi dongle with RSMA port(s) for an antenna of your choice has the inherent advantage over built-in WiFi PCI-e cards, that the internal card tends to be attached by a foot of ultra-thin coax cable pigtail to some space-optimized dual-band flipper antenna in the corner of your laptop's display... anything is better than this, even a lambda/4 naked wire attached to a straight-out SMA connector, millimeters away from the RF front end chip on the USB dongle's inner PCB.
BTW, there is a distance limit: the ACK timeout. Not sure how this parameter is handled in modern 802.11 incarnations and implementations. It seems to be somehow "dynamic" in modern Mikrotik firmware for instance. In the old days, this could be configured manually in the AP firmware, and the default was good enough to cover about 2 km of distance from AP to client.
Ultimately the best solution to the shitty nature of WiFi is a good quality cable ;-)