(Modified repost from stackoverflow since it might be more suited to this site)
I wanted to try building an arcade stick starting as simple as possible(ICs and basic electronic components as opposed to using an arduino board and the like) and use it on my computer, mostly just for the sake of building it.
The problem is that I know programming and basic circuitry, but I have no idea how both are connected. I already have a few scrapped male USB connectors and I have the circuit design pretty much done, the circuit would use a clock to generate a wave (something like pot 1, pot 2, button 1, button 2, repeat), but I'm not sure if the driver would be able to use that input in anyway.
So, how exactly would one go about getting a circuit to output information that a driver would be able to read? Does it read it in a binary high low way or does it read something like the amperage, allowing me to, for example, link a pot to a computer and read the input?