So, in the NAND gate below, I understand how it works with the p-type and n-type transistors. However, my question is what happens with the current when the output is connected to Vdd? If the voltage is high, doesn't that mean current will flow into the output?
Furthermore, if the output is read as high (Vdd), and voltage is supposed to be relative with respect to ground, where is the ground in this circuit when the output is a 1? If the output voltage is Vdd, how does it get read as a high voltage if the output does not have a reference that it can call ground?