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This is part of a larger circuit, but problem area is shown below. In simulations (of the larger actual circuit not shown), the base voltage of Q1 drops to about -6.35V. Can this damage Q1 (2N3904)? What if the base voltage drops to -15V? Current flowing through emitter base with base at -6.35V is in pico amperes (~25pA).

If this is a problem, how can I limit base voltage between 0 and -5V, without limiting op amp supply voltages?

PS: This is for a bench power supply. I need a +15V since there is a differential amplifier for voltage sensing and I lose accuracy at low output voltages if op amp +V supply is low. The -15V tracks the +15V, otherwise I lose accuracy at low voltages and current sensing (due to greater offset).

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Reverse biased diode across B-E. Normally off, but will cut Vbe off at -0.6V, max current determined by R1. \$\endgroup\$ – Brian Drummond Mar 11 '18 at 14:01
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The absolute maximum Vbe voltage of Q1 is -6V , as you can see from a cursory look at the datasheet. So, -6.35 is (slightly) outside the allowable range.

Typically they won't break down until 7-9V so you're probably okay, but if you want to be sure just slap a diode (eg. 1N4148) from base to emitter, or change the divider values to limit the base voltage to -5V.

It's bad juju to cause reverse breakdown in the B-E junction, and a long term reduction in beta has been observed as a result of higher currents being forced through junction.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks. I'll see what spice says with a diode, or a zener. Never thought of that. I'm not sure I can limit voltage with resistors. What is the minimum reverse current that can damage the BE junction? Datasheet says 10uA @ 6V, maybe 25pA is OK? Or maybe simulation limits itself, and is not to be trusted? \$\endgroup\$ – Indraneel Mar 11 '18 at 13:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ The data sheet says that the junction will not leak more than 10uA at 6V at 25'C. Since 25pA < 10uA, the transistor meets specifications. You are not supposed to put more than -6V on the base. SPICE may not model reverse breakdown, or if it does, it will be typical and not worst-case (neither the stock LTspice 2N3904 or Circuitlab model reverse Vbe breakdown). \$\endgroup\$ – Spehro Pefhany Mar 11 '18 at 15:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ I added a 1N4148 from emitter to base and all seems to be good. Minimum base voltage is 0 to -1V. Spice is showing some peculiar oscillations at some voltages, but I think that may be a LTspice problem (oscillations when I set both Iref and Vref at 0.9, but no oscillations at 8.99 or 9.01). Thanks again, I accepted your answer. \$\endgroup\$ – Indraneel Mar 11 '18 at 18:15
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    \$\begingroup\$ Folklore indicated the Noise Figure is degraded, once the emitter-base junction gets into breakdown. I suppose the avalanching of charges into the junctions will inject more charge-traps which will absorb and release charges randomly. So ..... avoid EB breakdown in a low-noise design. \$\endgroup\$ – analogsystemsrf Mar 12 '18 at 5:46

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