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For example, in a four stage multiplier, taking 150 V to 300 V, 450 V, and 600 V...

Is it common to charge the first stage capacitor to maybe 50 V (given a high switching frequency) and propagating that 50 V throughout, to 200 V at the output?

Would it then charge the first capacitor to 50 V, but not transfer any of that voltage since the second stage is already at 50 V? And subsequently the next oscillation charge the capacitor from the 50 V to ~85 V (given the RC curve), then propagate those 85 V throughout?

My main question is, is this the way multipliers work? In order to use a higher frequency and allow lower output ripple, are the stages charged to full output in a sequence?

Thank you!

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My main question is, is this the way multipliers work? In order to use a higher frequency and allow lower output ripple, are the stages charged to full output in a sequence?

You could learn so much more by using a simulator like micro-cap: -

enter image description here

Micro-cap evaluation version (above) is free and, to get you started I can even email you the file I quickly made to do the above sim.

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Not quite. For N multipliers there are N cap and N diodes or N pairs.

The 1st pair and all odd pairs clamp the sine wave.
The next (even pairs) rectify the AC-pp waveform and this repeats.
The value of impedance of C is chosen to match the highest sine wave f available such that the cap impedance x N is small compared to the load R otherwise in addition to diode loss there is impedance loss. You choose the loss to be low to enable low ripple.

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