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ESR results in power loss and inefficient power supplies or regulators.

How does ESR affect the stability of the system?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Is this a homework question? It's worded very much like one! \$\endgroup\$ – MCG Mar 21 '18 at 9:48
  • \$\begingroup\$ Nope I was just studying about capacitors \$\endgroup\$ – Deepika Mar 21 '18 at 9:49
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    \$\begingroup\$ Your question boils down to "How would the value of a resistor affect the stability of a system". \$\endgroup\$ – Andy aka Mar 21 '18 at 9:54
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It depends on the loop design, some power supplies (Particularly older LDOs) required a certain minimum ESR to provide a zero so the loop compensation would work (Often they specified tants for the output cap to provide this).

More modern parts tend to be designed for ceramic output caps and are stable down to a few milli ohm ESR levels (usually you can provide this with a short bit of tracking if the cap is still too good).

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