Half-in-earnest-answer, ideas that are more appropriate for equipment design than house wiring, just to explore theoretical possibilities... and highlight the traps and safety hazards in some ideas that one might come up with.
There is a simpler version of the circuit with the bridge rectifiers, BUT I can make no claim to whether it would actually be legal under your code. Would probably need additional measures taken to be safe, and might put extra stress on your switches due to capacitor charge current. Might create undue harmonics in your AC. Will likely not work with CCFLs or some LED bulbs. Some of these constraints/safety concerns are also valid for the bridge rectifier circuit. So, what I am suggesting here is a way to do it that is probably an acceptable way if you are building an appliance of some sort, but not a good idea to put into your house wiring.
Simply feed a correctly sized filter capacitor via diodes (half wave rectifiers), with the lamp parallel to the capacitor. The capacitor would need to be dimensioned for a given wattage of lightbulb, since the effective voltage the lightbulb sees depends on it. A much too large filter capacitor would feed the lightbulb 1.4 times mains voltage, a much too small one 0.5 times. Someone reaching into that socket if it is ever unpopulated might have issues with 400V DC, though. Also, a diode failing short could blow an electrolytic filter capacitor to pieces.
Instead of using any capacitor, using a lightbulb rated for half your mains voltage would also work (easy if it is a 240V system - get a 120V lightbulb. Disclaimer: A 120V bulb on a 240V system might unconditionally fail code since it is plainly a component not rated for the nominal mains voltage of your house wiring). There is, of course, the risk of someone "borrowing" the lightbulb from that lamp and putting it into another socket).
Even simpler, there are LED bulbs that are specified for 110V-240V input - some of them might very well accept half-wave rectified 240V AC without any complaint (YMMV. Don't try if you aren't CERTAIN the bulb can handle it fine! Some PSMPS circuits might accept DC input but degrade or overheat. You would need a schematic of the bulb to judge that, and make sure nothing else is inserted in that socket.)
House wiring in many countries is made out of clunky things in grey plastic cases, with huge screw terminals and more hieroglyphic approval marks than tattoos on a gangster, that do the same things as much smaller and cheaper equivalents found in appliances and on circuit boards. That is because reasons, mostly because there is an entirely different level of fool-proofing, clueless-next-buyer-of-that-house-proofing, and assuming-the-other-guy-will-do-it-wrong required compared to an in-device environment....