# Transformer basics: Why don't they shift phase by about 90°?

I learned that current is induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field. According to this, it would follow that the secondary voltage (sinusoidal input) of a transformer should peak when the primary current is changing fastest — that is at the zero crossing. It doesn't.

My question is: Why aren't primary current and secondary voltage out of phase by about 90°?

• Welcome to the site. I do appreciate that you mean well with a cheerful anecdotal style but it's quite difficult to find the question you want asked amongst it all. Can you trim it down and make it more direct? The better the quality of your question, the better the quality of the answers you will attract. Again, a very warm welcome to the site. Apr 4, 2018 at 20:41
• The question seems pretty well stated, to me: "why are not input current and output voltage of a transformer shifted by 90° one with respect to the other?" (edit: I had forgot "current") Apr 4, 2018 at 21:16
• @SredniVashtar If one has to read 8 paragraphs to deduce this single-sentence question - then no, it is not stated well. Apr 4, 2018 at 21:42
• @EugeneSh. c'mon... it's stated in the title. In. The. Title. (and in the very first paragraph). In the rest of the post he gave context about his education and level of expertise. Something actually needed to target an answer. Apr 4, 2018 at 22:07
• Transformer action is dominated by a feedback mechanism within the core. As the secondary Vout increases into a resistive load, the Iout increases and the core flux drops, instantaneously. Yet the core flux needs to maintained at a near constant level (due to the feedback) and more current is demanded from the primary. Apr 5, 2018 at 16:52

The induced voltage in the secondary is subject to the formula V = N d($\Phi$)/dt so the 90 degrees phase shifted flux produces a secondary voltage that is shifted by a further 90 degrees making 180 degrees in total.