Is it possible to make lightbulbs or any other electric light source without using high tech equipment? Is there something that could be created in small workshop?
Carbon arc lamp is probably the most low-tech kind of bright electric light. You need only carbon rods (welding equipment or extracted from common zinc battery cells for example), large resistor and somewhat powerful power source. See for example description here.
(Image from this site)
But be really careful if you try to reproduce this kind of light source yourself, it is quite dangerous for various reasons (fire danger, high voltage, production of strong UV light and noxious gases), see the warning in linked text too.
This is a ball of lime, heated with a high temperature gas flame.
Back in the day it was hydrogen and oxygen jets, directed onto the lime target. The light is quite excellent. We had great success with small cockle shells that had a bit of a bake out in the fireplace. Then heated with a MAPP gas flame. When the lime converts to CaO, and it hits temperature, it goes from dull orange, and bursts into white light. Stunning.
This is the same effect familiar to users of Coleman and Tilley mantle lanterns - which would probably be a more efficient way to use H-O
Making an electrolysis generator to run it off power would be standard stuff.
As long as your shop includes a vacuum pump, and you don't want long lifetime, sure.
Almost any conductor will give off light if you get it hot enough. Problem is, the hotter it gets the more efficient it is, and it's easy to melt a wire which is glowing white hot. Tungsten is what's used nowadays, and platinum will work pretty well, too.
Hot metal oxidizes quickly, so pumping out the air is a REAL good idea. If you don't have a vacuum pump, you can sort of work around it by simply replacing the air with argon, which you can get at any welding supply place.
Keep in mind that Edison got a patent for a bulb using carbonized bamboo for a filament, which would last about 1200 hours, in 1879, and tungsten first showed up commercially in about 1906. Not may folks think of 1879 as being "high tech", but YMMV.