detect that "current increase" and stop/turn off the motor.
Yes, that's possible. Many real systems actually work that way. This is often the case when the motor opens and closes something so that there are hard stops both ways. When the moving thing gets to the end of its travel, the motor stalls and the current goes up. The control system senses this and shuts off the motor.
Of course the motor and its electrical drive have to be able to handle the stall current for a few seconds at least, and you need a way to sense the current. The mechanical system also needs to be able to handle the full motor torque without breaking or wedging.
is there anyway to use hall effect sensors for that?
Yes. If your motor has Hall sensors to detect position, then you can easily determine when the position is no longer changing.
Hall sensors can also be used to sense current. That can be useful when the current is high, like 10s of Amps or more. In your case of 180 mA operating current, a series current sense resistor should be the first thing to look at.
do i need arduino
No. No one ever needs a arduino.
can do it without programing?
We don't know what you can do. With enough effort, sensing motor current over some threshold can be done with analog electronics, even with vacuum tubes if desired. However, using a microcontroller is the obvious and simple way to implement such a control system today.
Consider just the single issue of wanting to sense the current being over a threshold for long enough to not be a glitch, like 2 seconds. Such timing can be accomplished with analog electronics, but is much easier and more flexible when implemented by firmware running on a microcontroller.