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I am using STM32L432KCU microcontroller to create a sawtooth signal. My idea is use the timer TIM2 and a R-2R network (Digital to analog converter) conected to some pins in the microcontroller (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7). The counter is configured to start from 0 to 0xFF but the code doesn't write the pins Dx. In the code there is a function called write() that is supose to write 0 or 1 in each pin, for that I get the value of the counter using:

counter=__HAL_TIM_GetCounter(&htim2)

And then i do a check bit test with the variable counter to verify if I should set or reset each pin. But it doesn't work, the pins D1~D7 stay low and the pin D0 keep high and sometimes go low.

    /**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  ** This notice applies to any and all portions of this file
  * that are not between comment pairs USER CODE BEGIN and
  * USER CODE END. Other portions of this file, whether 
  * inserted by the user or by software development tools
  * are owned by their respective copyright owners.
  *
  * COPYRIGHT(c) 2018 STMicroelectronics
  *
  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
  * are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  *   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
  *      this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  *   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  *      this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  *      and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  *   3. Neither the name of STMicroelectronics nor the names of its contributors
  *      may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
  *      without specific prior written permission.
  *
  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
  * AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
  * DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
  * SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
  * CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
  * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
  * OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"
#include "stm32l4xx_hal.h"

/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */

/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
DAC_HandleTypeDef hdac1;

TIM_HandleTypeDef htim2;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */
/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_DAC1_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void);

/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */
/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void write(uint32_t a);
/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */
void HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim)
{
    if(htim->Instance==TIM2)
    {
        uint32_t counter=__HAL_TIM_GetCounter(&htim2);
        write(counter);
    }

}
/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  *
  * @retval None
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration----------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_DAC1_Init();
  MX_TIM2_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(&htim2);
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {

  /* USER CODE END WHILE */

  /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */

  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */

}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{

  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct;
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct;

    /**Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
    */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_MSI;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.MSIState = RCC_MSI_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.MSICalibrationValue = 0;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.MSIClockRange = RCC_MSIRANGE_6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_MSI;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 16;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV7;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = RCC_PLLQ_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLR = RCC_PLLR_DIV2;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

    /**Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
    */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV1;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

    /**Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
    */
  if (HAL_PWREx_ControlVoltageScaling(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

    /**Configure the Systick interrupt time 
    */
  HAL_SYSTICK_Config(HAL_RCC_GetHCLKFreq()/1000);

    /**Configure the Systick 
    */
  HAL_SYSTICK_CLKSourceConfig(SYSTICK_CLKSOURCE_HCLK);

  /* SysTick_IRQn interrupt configuration */
  HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(SysTick_IRQn, 0, 0);
}

/* DAC1 init function */
static void MX_DAC1_Init(void)
{

  DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig;

    /**DAC Initialization 
    */
  hdac1.Instance = DAC1;
  if (HAL_DAC_Init(&hdac1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

    /**DAC channel OUT1 config 
    */
  sConfig.DAC_SampleAndHold = DAC_SAMPLEANDHOLD_DISABLE;
  sConfig.DAC_Trigger = DAC_TRIGGER_NONE;
  sConfig.DAC_OutputBuffer = DAC_OUTPUTBUFFER_ENABLE;
  sConfig.DAC_ConnectOnChipPeripheral = DAC_CHIPCONNECT_DISABLE;
  sConfig.DAC_UserTrimming = DAC_TRIMMING_FACTORY;
  if (HAL_DAC_ConfigChannel(&hdac1, &sConfig, DAC_CHANNEL_1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

}

/* TIM2 init function */
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void)
{

  TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig;
  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig;

  htim2.Instance = TIM2;
  htim2.Init.Prescaler = 4;
  htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim2.Init.Period = 0xFF;
  htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1;
  htim2.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

  sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL;
  if (HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim2, &sClockSourceConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim2, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    _Error_Handler(__FILE__, __LINE__);
  }

}

/** Configure pins as 
        * Analog 
        * Input 
        * Output
        * EVENT_OUT
        * EXTI
*/
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{

  GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOB_CLK_ENABLE();

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(D7_GPIO_Port, D7_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, D3_Pin|D6_Pin|D5_Pin|D4_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, D1_Pin|D0_Pin|D2_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pin : D7_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = D7_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(D7_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /*Configure GPIO pins : D3_Pin D6_Pin D5_Pin D4_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = D3_Pin|D6_Pin|D5_Pin|D4_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /*Configure GPIO pins : D1_Pin D0_Pin D2_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = D1_Pin|D0_Pin|D2_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */
void write(uint32_t a){
// Pin D0
    if(((a) & (1<<(0)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_10, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_10, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D1
    if(((a) & (1<<(1)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_9, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_9, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D2
    if(((a) & (1<<(2)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_12, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_12, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D3
    if(((a) & (1<<(3)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_0, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_0, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D4
    if(((a) & (1<<(4)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_7, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_7, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D5
    if(((a) & (1<<(5)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_6, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_6, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
//Pin D6
    if(((a) & (1<<(6)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_1, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOB, GPIO_PIN_1, GPIO_PIN_RESET);
// Pin D7
    if(((a) & (1<<(7)))==1)
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_14, GPIO_PIN_SET);
    else
    HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_14, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

}
/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @param  file: The file name as string.
  * @param  line: The line in file as a number.
  * @retval None
  */
void _Error_Handler(char *file, int line)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */
  while(1)
  {
  }
  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t* file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/**
  * @}
  */

/**
  * @}
  */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/
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2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Wait ! Doesn't it have DAC ? It has Triangular-wave generation mode. \$\endgroup\$
    – Long Pham
    May 12 '18 at 14:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes it has, but I want to know how the timers work and put the results in the GPIO \$\endgroup\$
    – marty2
    May 12 '18 at 20:38
0
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The bitwise expressions are all wrong except the first one.

Take the next one for example

if(((a) & (1<<(1)))==1)

The expression ((a) & (1<<(1))) is either 0 when the bit is not set, or 2 when it is set, it'll never be 1. I'd rewrite them all as

if(a & (1<<0))

if(a & (1<<1))

if(a & (1<<2))

...
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