How can i calculate decoupling capacitor value? Which amount of noise we can filter use it.why use here 10uf , 0.1uf capacitor?
It's not for amount of noise. It's to supply current (the big one) and to react quickly (the small ones). So to size the big- consider current. Analog circuits, like sensors and stuff, would want 1uF and more. Digital- depends, but normally you put 0.1uF on each VCC input. For really fast stuff it would also be 1nF for low ESL.
In most cases you will not feel a difference. When you will, it will take long hours to understand why the hell your circuit behaves weird way.
Suppose you have 1 amp surges, every 1 microsecond. What size Cbypass to use?
What if the 1 amp surge exists for 1nanosecond. What amount is charge is consumed during that 1nanosecond. Q = C * V = I * T
Q = I * T
Q = 1amp * 1nS = 1 nanoCoulomb
So what? Can your circuit tolerate 1 milliVolt of VDD sag?
C * V = Q,
C = V / Q = 1e-3 volts / 1 nanoCoulomb = 1microFarad.
Rinse the math, bring in your own assumptions, and repeat the math.