No a passive part is either an insulator (dielectric) or a conductor with very weak character flaws of the other. We may ignore inductance and active parts.
When doing what you think it may be alternating pulse charging and then slow discharge in order to reduce voltage fluctuations or if near DC only getting the net difference. Like a weak laptop charger (say 30W instead of 65W)!that draws full power from the battery when running max power actually gets full power from the charger and only surplus from the battery. However chargers generally are sized to operate DC-DC converters and charge batteries with what’s left over at a slower rate.
Why ? Because the battery has capacitor characteristics so current (rate of charge flow) only flows in one direction at any time.
Conductors are somewhat different. You can have impedance controlled frequencies sent in opposite directions called full duplex modems or as in telephones control voltage in one direction and current in the other using a special hybrid transformer that isolates each direction.