No, you cannot do that. Nothing will go bang, but you'll only get 450v from it.
It's rather difficult to show why with the circuit as you've drawn it there. It becomes a little clearer when redrawn using a more conventional 'more positive, higher up the page' convention.
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
You can see that D2 conducts, and that all other diodes are reverse biassed. I think you may have intended D6 to go from the top of the battery to the output. It would then conduct, but not improve the 'two voltage' scheme. You could also note that D2 is superfluous. Actually, all the diodes are superfluous, as the situation is static, all the conducting ones could be replaced with links, and all the blocking ones replaced with open circuits.
Each diode position could have a changeover relay, this would allow you to switch the array between 150v and 450v configurations. Make sure that the relays are break before make (most are). Make sure you cannot connect your charge controller when the panels are in 450v configuration, use another relay, switched with the voltage selectors, to disconnect it.
Or you could find a charge controller that accepts 450v, or a 150v motor controller. Or buck or boost between the two supply levels.
[EDIT] As the OP himself pointed out, high voltage DC relays are not easily obtainable, and FETs would be rather better switches. The following would make a suitable arrangement.
simulate this circuit